Surprise is a Python scikit building and analyzing recommender systems.

Surprise was designed with the following purposes in mind:

The name SurPRISE (roughly :) ) stands for Simple Python RecommendatIon System Engine.

Getting started, example

Here is a simple example showing how you can (down)load a dataset, split it for 5-fold cross-validation, and compute the MAE and RMSE of the SVD algorithm.

from surprise import SVD
from surprise import Dataset
from surprise.model_selection import cross_validate

# Load the movielens-100k dataset (download it if needed).
data = Dataset.load_builtin('ml-100k')

# Use the famous SVD algorithm.
algo = SVD()

# Run 5-fold cross-validation and print results.
cross_validate(algo, data, measures=['RMSE', 'MAE'], cv=5, verbose=True)


Evaluating RMSE, MAE of algorithm SVD on 5 split(s).                       
            Fold 1  Fold 2  Fold 3  Fold 4  Fold 5  Mean    Std            
RMSE        0.9311  0.9370  0.9320  0.9317  0.9391  0.9342  0.0032         
MAE         0.7350  0.7375  0.7341  0.7342  0.7375  0.7357  0.0015         
Fit time    6.53    7.11    7.23    7.15    3.99    6.40    1.23           
Test time   0.26    0.26    0.25    0.15    0.13    0.21    0.06 

Surprise can do much more (e.g, GridSearchCV)! You’ll find more usage examples in the documentation .


Here are the average RMSE, MAE and total execution time of various algorithms (with their default parameters) on a 5-fold cross-validation procedure. The datasets are the Movielens 100k and 1M datasets. The folds are the same for all the algorithms. All experiments are run on a notebook with Intel Core i5 7th gen (2.5 GHz) and 8Go RAM. The code for generating these tables can be found in the benchmark example.

Movielens 100k RMSE MAE Time
SVD 0.934 0.737 0:00:11
SVD++ 0.92 0.722 0:09:03
NMF 0.963 0.758 0:00:15
Slope One 0.946 0.743 0:00:08
k-NN 0.98 0.774 0:00:10
Centered k-NN 0.951 0.749 0:00:10
k-NN Baseline 0.931 0.733 0:00:12
Co-Clustering 0.963 0.753 0:00:03
Baseline 0.944 0.748 0:00:01
Random 1.514 1.215 0:00:01
Movielens 1M RMSE MAE Time
SVD 0.873 0.686 0:02:13
SVD++ 0.862 0.673 2:54:19
NMF 0.916 0.724 0:02:31
Slope One 0.907 0.715 0:02:31
k-NN 0.923 0.727 0:05:27
Centered k-NN 0.929 0.738 0:05:43
k-NN Baseline 0.895 0.706 0:05:55
Co-Clustering 0.915 0.717 0:00:31
Baseline 0.909 0.719 0:00:19
Random 1.504 1.206 0:00:19


With pip (you’ll need numpy, and a C compiler. Windows users might prefer using conda):

$ pip install numpy
$ pip install scikit-surprise

With conda:

$ conda install -c conda-forge scikit-surprise

For the latest version, you can also clone the repo and build the source (you’ll first need Cython and numpy):

$ pip install numpy cython
$ git clone https://github.com/NicolasHug/surprise.git
$ cd surprise
$ python setup.py install


This project is licensed under the BSD 3-Clause license, so it can be used for pretty much everything, including commercial applications. Please let us know how Surprise is useful to you!

Here is a Bibtex entry if you ever need to cite Surprise in a research paper (please keep us posted, we would love to know if Surprise was helpful to you):

author =   {Hug, Nicolas},
title =    { {S}urprise, a {P}ython library for recommender systems},
howpublished = {\url{http://surpriselib.com}},
year = {2017}


The following persons have contributed to Surprise:

Charles-Emmanuel Dias, Lukas Galke, Pierre-François Gimenez, Nicolas Hug, Hengji Liu, Maher Malaeb, Naturale0, nju-luke, Skywhat, Mike Lee Williams, Chenchen Xu.

Thanks a lot :) !

Contributing, feedback, contact

Any kind of feedback/criticism would be greatly appreciated (software design, documentation, improvement ideas, spelling mistakes, etc…).

If you’d like to see some features or algorithms implemented in Surprise, please let us know!

Please feel free to contribute (see guidelines) and send pull requests!

For bugs, issues or questions about Surprise, you can use the GitHub project page (please don’t send me emails as there would be no record for other users).